Cyperus Distans Descriptive Essay

Bangarwa, S.K., Norsworthy, J.K. Jha, P., Malik, M. 2008. Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) management in an organic production system, Weed Science 56(4): 606-613.

Brecke, B.J., Stephenson, D.O., Unruh, J. B. 2005. Control of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) with herbicides and mowing, Weed Technology 19(4): 809-814.

Charudattan, R. & A. Dinoor. 2000. Biological control of weeds using plant pathogens: accomplishments and limitations, Crop Protection 19: 691-695.

Chase, C.A, Stall, W.M., Simonne, E.H., Hochmuth, R.C., Dukes, M.D. & Weiss, W. 2006. Nutsedge control with drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin in a sandy soil, HortTechnology 16(4): 641-648.

Cullen, J.M., Briese, D.T. Kriticos, D.J., Lonsdale, W.M., Morin, L. and Scott, J.K. eds, 2004. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia, 648 pp.

Czarnota, Mark A. and S. Wayne Bingham. 1997. Control of yellow and purple nutsedges (Cyperus esculentus and Cyperus rotundus) in turfgrass with MON-12051, Weed Technology 11 (3): 460 - 465.
Summary: Abstract: Field studies were conducted from 1993 to 1995 to evaluate MON-12051 for turfgrass tolerance and control of yellow and purple nutsedges. The availability of herbicides for selective control of these weeds in turfgrass is limited. A sulfonylurea compound, MON-12051, has recently been developed for selective control of the nutsedges in turfgrass. When MON-12051 was applied at 0.07 to 0.14 kg ai/ha, the injury to Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass was slight, with a maximum of 10% injury. At these rates, MON-12051 outperformed both bentazon and imazaquin in controlling yellow and purple nutsedges. Averaged over all tests 6 wk after treatment, yellow nutsedge control with MON-12051 was 83%. Control averaged 44% during the same period when treated with bentazon, whether applied once at 2.24 kg ai/ha or twice at 1.12 kg ai/ha. Purple nutsedge control averaged 96% when treated with MON-12051 in Kentucky bluegrass, while control was 42% with imazaquin applied at 0.19 and 0.43 kg ai/ha.

Ellison, C.A. & R.W. Barreto. 2004. Prospects for the management of invasive alien weeds using co-evolved fungal pathogens: a Latin American perspective Biological Invasions 6: 23-45.

E.N. Rosskopf, C.B. Yandoc, J.B. Kadir & R. Charudattan. 2004. Evaluation of Dactylaria higginsii as a component in an integrated approach to pest management. In: Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (eds Cullen, J.M., Briese, D.T. Kriticos, D.J., Lonsdale, W.M., Morin, L. and Scott, J.K.), pp. 351�352. CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia.

Fowler, S.V., S. Ganeshan, J. Mauremootoo & Y. Mungroo. 2000. Biological Control of Weeds in Mauritius: Past Successes Revisited and Present Challenges. In: Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds 4-14 July 1999, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA. Neal R. Spencer [ed.]: 43-50.

Iqbal, J., Cheema, Z.A.& An, M. 2008. Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L) management in cotton with combined application of Sorgaab and S-Metolachlor, Pakistan Journal of Botany 40(6): 2383-2391.

IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.

Morales-Payan, J.P., R. Charudattan, W.M. Stall & J.T. DeValerio. 2004. Assessment of Dactylaria higginsii as a postemergence bioherbicide for purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum). In: Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (eds Cullen, J.M., Briese, D.T. Kriticos, D.J., Lonsdale, W.M., Morin, L. and Scott, J.K.), pp. 351�352. CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia.

Norsworthy, J.K., Malik, M.S., Jha, P. & Oliveira, M.J., 2006. Effects of isothiocyanates on purple (Cyperus rotundus L.) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), Weed Biology & Management 6(3): 131-138.

Ou, Z., M. Leigh, T., Stephen H., Schroeder, J. & Libbin, J. 2008. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System, Journal of Nematology 40< JUN 2008. 99-108.

Pemberton, R.W. 2000. Predictable risk to native plants in weed biological control, Oecologia 125: 489-494.

Phatak, S.C., M.B. Callaway & C.S. Vavrina. 1987. Biological Control and Its Integration in Weed Management Systems for Purple and Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus), Weed Technology 1(1): pp. 84-91.

Ratiarson, O. & Falisse, A. 2006. New ploughing effects on Cyperus rotundus L. tubers in New Caledonia. I. Effects of rotary hoe and circular spike harrow, Tropicultura 24(3): 169-174.

Ratiarson, O. & Falisse, A. 2007. New ploughing effects on Cyperus rotundus l. tubers in New Caledonia. II. viability of half-tubers, Tropicultura 25(1): 12-15.

Rogers, H. H.; Runion, G. B.; Prior, S. A.; Price, A. J.; Torbert, H. A.; Gjerstad, D. H. 2008. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on invasive plants: Comparison of purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L. and C. esculentus L.). Journal of Environmental Quality. 37(2). MAR-APR 2008. 395-400.

Santos, B.M. 2009. Drip-applied metam potassium and herbicides as methyl bromide alternatives for Cyperus control in tomato, Crop Protection 28: 68-71.

Santos, B.M., J.P. Gilreath, T.N. Motis, M. von Hulten & M.N. Siham. 2006. Effects of Mulch Types and Concentrations of 1,3 Dichloropropene plus Chloropicrin on Fumigant Retention and Nutsedge Contro, HortTechnology 16(4).

Suwunnamek, U. & C. Parker. 1975. Control of Cyperus rotundus with glyphosate: the influence of ammonium sulphate and other additives, Weed Research 15: 13-19.

Travlos, I.S., Economou, G., Kotoulas, V.E., Kanatas, P.J., Kontogeorgos, A.N. & Karamanos, A.I. 2009. Potential effects of diurnally alternating temperatures and solarization on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber sprouting, Journal of Arid Environments 73(1): 22-25.

Warren Jr. & H.D. Coble. 1999. Managing Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Populations Utilizing Herbicide Strategies and Crop Rotation Sequences L.S., Weed Technology 13: 494-503.

Webster, T.M. 2005a. Patch Expansion of Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) and Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) with and without Polyethylene Mulch, Weed Science 53(6): 839-845.

Webster, T.M. 2005b. Mulch type affects growth and tuber production of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) , Weed Science 53(6): 834-838.

Webster, T.M., T.L. Grey, J.W. Davis & A.S. Culpepper. 2008. Glyphosate Hinders Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) and Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) Tuber Production, Weed Science 56: 735-742.

Yandoc, C.B., Rosskopf, E.N., Pitelli, R.L.C.M, Charudattan, R. 2006. Effect of selected pesticides on conidial germination and mycelial growth of Dactylaria higginsii, a potential bioherbicide for purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), Weed Technology 20(1): 255-260.

Bendixen, L.E. & U.B. Nandihalli. 1987. Worldwide Distribution of Purple and Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus), Weed Technology 1(1): 61-65.

Cristina, M., T. Duarte, G.M. Figueira, A. Sartoratto, V.L.G. Rehder & C. Delarmelina. 2005. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants ,Journal of Ethnopharmacology 97: 305�311.

ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database Cyperus rotundus L.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: [Accessed 10 November 2008]

Mennan, H. & Isik, D. 2003. Invasive Weed Species in Onion Production Systems During the Last 25 Years in Amasya, Turkey,Pak. J. Bot. 35(2): 155-160.

Morales-Payan, J.P., B.M. Santos, W.M. Stall & T.A. Bewick. 1997. Effects of Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Vegetative Growth and Fruit Yield, Weed Technology 1: 672-676.

Mullin, B.H., L.W.J. Anderson, J.M. DiTomaso, R.E. Eplee & K.D. Getsinger. 2000. Invasive Plant Species, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology 13.

Pena-Fronteras, J.T., Villalobos, M.C., Baltazar, A.M., Merca, F.E., Ismail, A.M. & Johnson, D.E. 2009. Adaptation to flooding in upland and lowland ecotypes of Cyperus rotundus, a troublesome sedge weed of rice: tuber morphology and carbohydrate metabolism, Annals of Botany 103(2): 295-302.

Quayyum, H.A., A.U. Mallik, D.M. Leach and C. Gottardo. 2000. Growth Inhibitory Effects of Nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus) on Rice (Oryza sativa) Seedlings, Journal of Chemical Ecology 26(9).

Santos, B.M., J.P. Morales-Payan, W.M. Stall & T.A. Bewick. 1998. Influence of Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Density and Nitrogen Rate on Radish (Raphanus sativus) Yield, Weed Science 46(6): 661-664.

Sharma, R. & Gupta, R. 2007. Cyperus rotundus extract inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity from animal and plants as well as inhibits germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato, Life Sciences 80: 2389-2392.

Singh, N.B., Pandey, B.N. & Singh, A. 2009. Allelopathic effects of Cyperus rotundus extract in vitro and ex vitro on banana, Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 31(3): 633-638.

Space, J.C. and M. Falanruw. 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia. Prepared for the meeting of the Pacific Islands committee, Council of Western State Foresters, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands, February 22-26, 1999.

Space, J. C. and T Flynn. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.

Space, J.C., B. Waterhouse, J.S. Denslow and D. Nelson. 2000. Invasive Plant Species on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. USDA Forest Service.

Stoller, E.W. & R.D. Sweet. 1987. Biology and Life Cycle of Purple and Yellow Nutsedges (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus), Weed Technology 1(1): 66-73.

Wills, G.D. 1987. Description of Purple and Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus), Weed Technology 1(1): pp. 2-9.

Botanical Description:Cyperus Origin Identification.


Botanical Description:Cyperus Origin Identification.

 A common weed in Suriname; herbaceous perennial with purple - brown flowers.The leaves are dark green, grass-like, with a prominent vein on the underside.

 It has red-brown spikelets with up to 40 individual flowers.Triangular stems bear tufts of leaves atop; strong clumps of many stems are formed under good conditions.
 The dried tuberous roots are collected, dried and used in traditional medicine.

 In India, nutgrass is used in hair - and skin care products.It stimulates sebaceous glands near hair roots. Also interesting is that the oil, an amber viscous liquid, extracted from this plant is used in perfumery.

 A perennial from rhizomes and tubers that may reach 2 1/2 feet in height. The stems are 3-sided and triangular in cross section and the leaves are yellow to green in color with a distinct ridge. Found throughout the southeastern United States as a common weed of agronomic and horticultural crops, nurseries, turfgrass, and landscapes.

 Seedling: Seedlings rarely occur. Most plants from rhizomes and/or tubers. Leaves do not have ligules or auricles and have a distinct ridge along the midvein, but are nevertheless often mistaken for grasses.

 Stems: Erect, unbranched, and 3-sided and triangular in cross section. Stems are usually solitary and produce terminal spikelets

 Leaves: Dark green in color and have a distinctly shiny appearance. Leaves are 5 to 8 mm wide and have a distinct ridge along the midvein. Leaves are produced in groups of 3 from the base of the plant. Leaves are without hairs (glaucus) and no auricles or ligules are present. The leaves of purple nutsedge taper abruptly to a sharp point, unlike the gradual taper of yellow nutsedge leaves.

 Roots: Rhizomes and tubers occur on the same plants. Tubers are oblong, ridged, initially white in color, eventually turning brown or black, and are bitter to the taste. Purple nutsedge produces chains of tubers that develop along the entire rhizome.

 Flowers: Spikelets occur at the ends of the solitary stems in a cluster where the flower stalks arise from a common point (umbel-like). Individual spikelets are reddish-purple to reddish-brown in color.

Introduction of Cyperus.

 Cyperus is known in China as xiangfu or xiangfuzi. The term xiang means fragrant, and usually is applied to strong and pleasant fragrances, such as those occurring in culinary spices, perfumes, and incenses. The character fu is the same as that used to describe aconite (fuzi); the term was likely used because the appearance of the cyperus rhizomes, the part used, reminded herbalists of the aconite roots. In much of the rest of the world, cyperus is referred to as nutgrass or purple nutsedge (sedge is a term indicating blade-like leaves and rush-like stems and is often applied to the plants of the entire Cyperaceae family); the nut is the rhizome (or tuber), which forms rounded or elongated balls along a tangle of thin roots (see artists drawing of three species of Cyperus below, showing roots and rhizomes; C. rotundus is the one pictured on the right).

 The plant is considered an invasive weed; it has been called "the world's worst weed." The plant requires sun and moist conditions, though it grows in sandy soil (one of the old Chinese names for it was shacao, meaning sand weed), as well as in loamy moist fields and in tropical rainforests. It has a vast growing range, crossing the globe and particularly noted in the Pacific Islands (where its leaves are used for weaving) as well as along coastal regions. It is especially prevalent in southern India, where its essential oil is used in perfumery. As an invasive weed, it is considered troublesome in 92 countries and adversely affects more than 50 crops, including sugar cane, corn, cotton, rice, and many vegetables. Cyperus grows rapidly and fills the soil with its tangle of roots and rhizomes; this one species (C. rotundus) can produce up to 40,000 kg/hectare of underground plant material. In addition to taking up nutrients and physical space, the plant produces sesquiterpenes, accumulating in the rhizomes, which inhibit the growth of other plants.

 For medicinal use in China, the underground portion is collected in autumn, cooked for a short time in boiling water or steamed, with the fibrous roots burnt off; the rhizomes are sliced in half down the center, and dried in the sun.

 Cyperus Root Origin Identification:

 The rhizome of Cyperus rotundus L., Cyperus hexastachyos, or Pycreus rotundus, a perennial herb, of the family Cyperaceae. Grown in tropical areas and along roadsides, sandy fields and cultivated ground in such countries as the Bahamas, Java, Samoa, China,Egypt, Sudan, Turkey, Iran, Indiana, France and Venezuela.

 The plant grows to about 0.6 m by 1 m. The scented flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). The plant cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist or wet soil.

 In China, it is produced in most areas but mainly in the provinces Guangdong, Henan, Zhejiang, Shandong, etc. Harvested in autumn, the hair and tassels are first removed from the rhizome, then the rhizome is dried in the sun for use when raw or after being fried with vinegar. Grind the rhizome into pieces for use.
 Also called Nut Grass Rhizome.


  • 1.Cyperus scariosus or Cyperus rotundus,an old famous Sedge from ancient Egypt and China.
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