Walrus Bibliography

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"I Am the Walrus" is a song by the Beatles released in November 1967. It was featured in the Beatles' television filmMagical Mystery Tour (MMT) in December of that year, as a track on the associated British double EP of the same name and its American counterpart LP, and was the B-side to the number 1 hit single "Hello, Goodbye". Since the single and the double EP held at one time in December 1967 the top two slots on the British singles chart, the song had the distinction of being at number 1 and number 2 simultaneously.


John Lennon received a letter from a pupil at Quarry Bank High School, which he had attended. The writer mentioned that the English master was making his class analyse Beatles' lyrics. (Lennon wrote an answer, dated 1 September 1967, which was auctioned by Christie's of London in 1992.) Lennon, amused that a teacher was putting so much effort into understanding the Beatles' lyrics, decided to write in his next song the most confusing lyrics that he could.

According to author Ian MacDonald, the "model" for "I Am the Walrus" was most likely Procol Harum's "A Whiter Shade of Pale", which was a hit single during the summer of 1967 and Lennon's favourite song of the period. The lyrics came from three song ideas that Lennon had been working on, the first of which was inspired by hearing a police siren at his home in Weybridge; Lennon wrote the lines "Mis-ter cit-y police-man" to the rhythm and melody of the siren. The second idea was a short rhyme about Lennon sitting amidst his garden, while the third was a nonsense lyric about sitting on a corn flake. Unable to finish the three different songs, he combined them into one. The lyrics also included the phrase "Lucy in the sky", a reference to the Beatles' earlier song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds".

The walrus refers to Lewis Carroll's poem "The Walrus and the Carpenter" (from the book Through the Looking-Glass). Lennon later expressed dismay upon belatedly realising that the walrus was a villain in the poem.

The final piece of the song came together when Lennon's friend and former fellow member of the Quarrymen, Peter Shotton visited, and Lennon asked him about a playground nursery rhyme they sang as children. Shotton recalled the rhyme as follows:

Yellow matter custard, green slop pie,
All mixed together with a dead dog's eye,
Slap it on a butty, ten foot thick,
Then wash it all down with a cup of cold sick.

Lennon borrowed a couple of images from the first two lines. Shotton was also responsible for suggesting that Lennon change the lyric "waiting for the man to come" to "waiting for the van to come". The Beatles' official biographer Hunter Davies was present while the song was being written and wrote an account in his 1968 biography of the Beatles. According to this biography, Lennon remarked to Shotton, "Let the fuckers work that one out."

Lennon claimed he wrote the first two lines on separate acid trips; he explained much of the song to Playboy in 1980:

The first line was written on one acid trip one weekend. The second line was written on the next acid trip the next weekend, and it was filled in after I met Yoko ... I'd seen Allen Ginsberg and some other people who liked Dylan and Jesus going on about Hare Krishna. It was Ginsberg, in particular, I was referring to. The words 'Element'ry penguin' meant that it's naïve to just go around chanting Hare Krishna or putting all your faith in one idol. In those days I was writing obscurely, à la Dylan. [...]

It never dawned on me that Lewis Carroll was commenting on the capitalist system. I never went into that bit about what he really meant, like people are doing with the Beatles' work. Later, I went back and looked at it and realized that the walrus was the bad guy in the story and the carpenter was the good guy. I thought, Oh, shit, I picked the wrong guy. I should have said, 'I am the carpenter.' But that wouldn't have been the same, would it? [Sings, laughing] 'I am the carpenter ...'

Musical structure[edit]

All the chords are major chords or seventh chords, and all the musical letters of the alphabet (A, B, C, D, E, F and G) are used. The song ends using a Shepard tone, with a chord progression built on ascending and descending lines in the bass and strings, repeated as the song fades. Musicologist Alan W. Pollack analyses: "The chord progression of the outro itself is a harmonic Moebius strip with scales in bassline and top voice that move in contrary motion." The bassline descends stepwise A, G, F, E, D, C, and B, while the strings part rises A, B, C, D, E, F♯, G: this sequence repeats as the song fades, with the strings rising higher on each iteration. Pollack also notes that the repeated cell is seven bars long, which means that a different chord begins each four-bar phrase. The fade is described by Walter Everett as a "false ending", in the form of an "unrelated coda" consisting of the orchestral chord progression, chorus, and sampling of the radio play.[7]

The song is in the key of A, and the instrumental introduction starts in the Lydian mode of B major.[8] Verse 1 begins with a I–♭III–IV–I rock pattern: "I am he" (A chord)..."you are me" (C chord) "and we are all toge..." (D chord) "...ther" (A chord). Verse 2, however, involves a ♭VI–♭VII–I Aeolian ascent: "waiting" (F chord) "for the van" (G chord) "to come" (A chord). The chorus uses a ♭III–IV–V pattern: "I am the eggman (C chord) "they are the eggmen (D chord). "I am the walrus (E chord), "goo goo g'joob" hanging as an imperfect cadence until resolved with the I (A chord) on "Mr. City Policeman".[9] At the line "Sitting in an English garden" the D♯ melody note (as in the instrumental introduction) establishes a Lydian mode (sharp 4th note in the scale), and this mode is emphasised more strongly with the addition of a D♯ note to the B chord on "If the sun don't come".[10]


"I Am the Walrus" was the first studio recording made by the Beatles after the death of their manager, Brian Epstein, in August 1967. The basic backing track featuring the Beatles was released in 1996 on Anthology 2. George Martin arranged and added orchestral accompaniment that included violins, cellos, horns, and clarinet. Paul McCartney said that Lennon gave instructions to Martin as to how he wished the orchestration to be scored, including singing most of the parts as a guide. A 16-voice choir of professional studio vocalists named the Mike Sammes Singers took part in the recording as well, variously singing "Ho-ho-ho, hee-hee-hee, ha-ha-ha", "oompah, oompah, stick it up your jumper!", "everybody's got one" and making a series of shrill whooping noises. The "stick it up your jumper" refrain originated with the 1930s novelty song "Umpa, Umpa (Stick It Up Your Jumper)" by The Two Leslies.[citation needed]

In 2015, founding Moody Blues member Ray Thomas said in an interview that he and fellow band member Mike Pinder contributed backing vocals to the song, as well as harmonicas to "The Fool on the Hill".[12]

Incorporation of text from King Lear[edit]

The dramatic reading in the mix is Shakespeare's King Lear (Act IV, Scene 6), lines 219–222 and 249–262,[13] added to the song on 29 September 1967[14] direct from an AM radio Lennon was fiddling with that happened to be receiving the 7:30 pm to 11 pm[15] broadcast of the play on the BBC Third Programme.

The first excerpt (ll. 219–222) moves in and out of the text, containing fragments of lines only. It begins where the disguised Edgar talks to his estranged and maliciously blinded father the Earl of Gloucester (timings given[13]):

Gloucester: (2:35) Now, good sir, wh— (Lennon appears to change the channel away from the station here)[13]
Edgar: (2:38) — poor man, made tame by fortune — (2:44) good pity —

In the play Edgar then kills Oswald, Goneril's steward. During the fade of the song the second main extract (ll. 249–262), this time of continuous text, is heard (timings given[13]):[13][17]

Oswald: (3:52) Slave, thou hast slain me. Villain, take my purse.
If ever thou wilt thrive, (4:02) bury my body,
And give the (4:05) letters which thou find'st about me
To (4:08) Edmund, Earl of Gloucester; (4:10) seek him out
Upon the British party. O, (4:14) untimely Death!
Edgar: (4:23) I know thee well: a (4:25) serviceable villain;
As duteous to the (4:27) vices of thy mistress
As badness would desire.
Gloucester: What, is he dead?
Edgar: (4:31) Sit you down father, rest you.

On the radio broadcast the roles were read by Mark Dignam (Gloucester), Philip Guard (Edgar), and John Bryning (Oswald).[14]

Different versions[edit]

In the original (1967) stereo release, at around two minutes through the song, the mix changes from true stereo to "fake stereo". This came about because the radio broadcast had been added "live" into the mono mix-down and so was unavailable for inclusion in the stereo mix; hence, fake stereo from the mono mix was created for this portion of the song.[18]

The mono version opens with a four-beat chord, while the stereo mix features six beats on the initial chord. The four-beat-only intro is also included on a different stereo mix (overseen by George Martin) for the previous MPI Home Video version of Magical Mystery Tour, especially the US Magical Mystery Tour album. The US mono single mix includes an extra bar of music before the words "yellow matter custard". This is actually the original uncut version of the mono mix called RM23. An early, overdub-free mix of the song released on Anthology 2 reveals John singing the lyrics "Yellow mat-" too early—this was edited out. A hybrid version prepared for the 1980 US Rarities LP combines the six-beat opening with the extra bar of music that precedes the words "yellow matter custard" (from the aforementioned US mono single mix).[19] An entirely new full stereo remix was done in 2012 for Apple's DVD and Blu-ray release of the restored version of Magical Mystery Tour.

The Jean Beaudinpsychedelic 1969 short subject Vertige[20] uses as the entirety of its soundtrack the song slowed down to 1/8 speed.[21][dubious– discuss]

A 5.1 surround sound full stereo remix of the song appeared on the DVD release of Anthology in 2003, on disc 4. A full stereo digital remix was also done for the Cirque du Soleil show Love and album of the same name, released in 2006. Producers George and Giles Martin were allowed access to early generations of the original master tapes. Musical parts that had previously been mixed were now available as separate elements. Additionally, a copy of the BBC broadcast of King Lear was acquired. Now, with all the sound sources used in the original mono mix present, a proper stereo remix could be accomplished. These tracks were transferred digitally and lined up to create a new multi-track master, from which a new mix would be made.

In addition to the stereo remixes prepared for the Love show and the 2012 Apple reissue referenced above, the DVDs that were released for those same projects contain a 5.1 surround sound mix of the song, making three distinct 5.1 remixes of the same song.

In Spring/Summer 1988 a Dutch radio station aired a no-overdub version that was acquired through dubious raids on the Apple vaults and titled Beatles unlimited. (Private copy, used by owner only, is noted here.)



Critical reception at the time of the track's release was largely positive:

  • "John growls the nonsense (and sometimes suggestive) lyric, backed by a complex scoring incorporating violins and cellos. You need to hear it a few times before you can absorb it" — Derek Johnson.
  • "Into the world of Alice in Wonderland now and you can almost visualise John crouching on a deserted shore singing 'I am the walrus' to some beautiful strings from far away on the horizon and a whole bagful of Beatle sounds, like a ringing doorbell and someone sawing a plank of wood. A fantastic track which you will need to live with for a while to fully appreciate" — Nick Logan.
  • In the 21st century, professional Beatleologist Scott Freiman called the song "the Beatles' last psychedelic masterpiece".[24]

The song was banned by the BBC for the use of the word "knickers" in the line "You’ve been a naughty girl, you’ve let your knickers down".[25][26]


Although it has been reported that Lennon wrote "I Am the Walrus" to confuse those who tried to interpret his songs, there have nevertheless been many attempts to analyse the meaning of the lyrics.[27][28]

Seen in the Magical Mystery Tour film singing the song, Lennon, apparently, is the walrus; on the track-list of the accompanying soundtrack album, however, underneath "I Am the Walrus" are printed the words " 'No you're not!' said Little Nicola" (in the film, Nicola Hale is a little girl who keeps contradicting everything the other characters say). Lennon returned to the subject in the lyrics of three of his subsequent songs: in the 1968 Beatles song "Glass Onion" he sings, "I told you 'bout the walrus and me, man / You know that we're as close as can be, man / Well here's another clue for you all / The walrus was Paul"; in the third verse of "Come Together" he sings the line "he bag production, he got walrus gumboot"; and in his 1970 solo song "God", admits: "I was the walrus, but now I'm John".

Eric Burdon, lead singer of the Animals, claims to be the "Eggman" mentioned in the song's lyric. Burdon was known as "Eggs" to his friends, the nickname originating from his fondness for breaking eggs over naked women's bodies.[citation needed] Burdon's biography mentions such an affair taking place in the presence of John Lennon, who shouted "Go on, go get it, Eggman..."

In popular culture[edit]



  1. ^Walter Everett. The Foundations of Rock: From "Blue Suede Shoes" to "Suite: Judy Blue Eyes". p. 154
  2. ^Dominic Pedler. The Songwriting Secrets of the Beatles. Music Sales Limited. Omnibus Press. NY. 2003. p. 270
  3. ^Dominic Pedler. The Songwriting Secrets of the Beatles. Music Sales Limited. Omnibus Press. NY. 2003. pp. 233–34
  4. ^Dominic Pedler. The Songwriting Secrets of the Beatles. Music Sales Limited. Omnibus Press. NY. 2003. pp. 270–71.
  5. ^ abc"Discussions Magazine Music Blog: An EXCLUSIVE interview with THE MOODY BLUES' Ray Thomas!". Discussionsmagazine.com. 2015-01-15. Retrieved 2016-10-01. 
  6. ^ abcdeRobert Fontenot, "I Am the Walrus", on Oldies Music page from about.com. Accessed 2 May 2014
  7. ^ abDave Rybaczewski, "I Am The Walrus", on Beatles Music History. Accessed 2 May 2014.
  8. ^"Network 3 Programme Listings for Friday, 29 September, 1967". BBC Genome Project. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  9. ^Walter Everett. The Beatles as Musicians. Revolver Through the Anthology. Oxford University Press. NY. 1999. ISBN 0-19-509553-7. ISBN 0-19-512941-5. pp. 134–35.
  10. ^Here, There and Everywhere: My Life Recording the Music of the Beatles. Books.google.com. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  11. ^Beatlesongs. Books.google.com. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  12. ^Vertige on IMDb
  13. ^"Trippy Sixties film soundtracked with 'I Am The Walrus' time-stretched 800%". DangerousMinds. 
  14. ^Freiman, Scott. "Deconstructing The Beatles". beatleslectures.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  15. ^www.telegraph.co.uk.
  16. ^beatlesebooks.com.
  17. ^""I Am The Walrus": What it means". Recmusicbeatles.com. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  18. ^"Reference Library: I Am The Walrus - An Interpretation". The Internet Beatles Album. Retrieved 28 March 2016. 
  19. ^Du Noyer, Paul (7 November 1998). "The flip side of Oasis". The Telegraph. Retrieved 27 December 2017. 


  • "I Am the Walrus". About The Beatles. 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2008. 
  • Aldridge, Alan, ed. (1990). The Beatles Illustrated Lyrics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin / Seymour Lawrence. ISBN 0-395-59426-X. 
  • Davies, Hunter (2002). "My Friend John". Retrieved 7 December 2007. 
  • "Styx's Live Walrus Recording to Debut on iTunes; Styx's Version of "I Am the Walrus" Hits Top 10 on Classic Rock Charts". Encyclopedia.com. 17 November 2004. Retrieved 23 July 2007. 
  • Fontenot, Robert (2007). "I Am the Walrus". About.com. Retrieved 7 December 2007. 
  • Johnson, Derek (18 November 1967). "Hello Goodbye/I am the Walrus". NME. 
  • Lewisohn, Mark (1988). The Beatles Recording Sessions. New York: Harmony Books. ISBN 0-517-57066-1. 
  • Logan, Nick (25 November 1967). "Magical Mystery Tour". NME. 
  • MacDonald, Ian (2005). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (2nd rev. edn). Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-55652-733-3. 
  • Miles, Barry (1997). Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now. New York: Henry Holt & Company. ISBN 0-8050-5249-6. 
  • Pollack, Alan W. (1996). "Notes on 'I Am the Walrus'". Retrieved 8 June 2007. 
  • Sheff, David (2000). All We Are Saying: The Last Major Interview with John Lennon and Yoko Ono. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-25464-4. 
  • Deezen, Eddie (2012). "Who was the walrus? Analyzing the strangest Beatle's song". Retrieved 9 July 2017. 

External links[edit]

An adult female walrus. Photo by Ryan Kingsbery, U.S. Geological Survey. 

Tipped off by reports from the local community, NOAA scientists were the first to photograph from the air and document thousands of burly, mustachioed mammals lounging on the shore near Pt. Lay, Alaska this summer.

The team's small airplane carried digital cameras for documenting whale sightings, so they took aerial photos of the crowded beach and shared them with colleagues at partner agencies. It turned out those photos were evidence of a relatively new phenomenon. Due to loss of sea ice in offshore areas, Pacific walruses are foraging in more coastal areas and using beaches for resting, or hauling out.

The number of walruses at the Pt. Lay haulout keeps growing. Estimates from the photos are 1,500 to 4,000 animals when first seen on 12 September, and 5,500 to 8,000 on 22 September. On 27 September, biologists report that there were approximately 10,000 walruses.

Every year, a team from the Alaska Fisheries Science Center's National Marine Mammal Laboratory surveys the Alaskan Arctic from a small airplane to study the distribution and abundance of marine mammals. These flights are part of the Aerial Surveys of Arctic Marine Mammals (ASAMM) project funded and co-managed by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Studies Program. The aim of the project is to monitor the patterns of marine mammal density in areas of the Arctic where oil and gas exploration may take place.

An aerial photograph of an estimated 8,000 walruses taken near Pt. Lay, Alaska, 22 September 2013. Photo by Stan Churches.

Megan Ferguson from NOAA Fisheries, the ASAMM Project Coordinator, explains: "NOAA's research typically doesn't extend to studying walruses. Among the federal agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conduct most of the walrus research, and the species is managed by USFWS. It's exciting for ASAMM's marine mammal observers and pilots to be able to assist other agencies by collecting valuable data on walruses, while carrying out our primary mission of monitoring the whales and porpoises in the northeastern Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas.

"This is turning out to be a really good year. In addition to photographing the walrus haulout area, NOAA scientists documented more bowhead whales, including calves and feeding adults, in the Beaufort Sea this summer compared to 2012. We are also seeing more gray whale calves in the Chukchi Sea than we have in recent years."

Large walrus haulouts along the Alaskan coastline in the northeastern Chukchi Sea are a relatively new phenomenon. In the past, walruses used sea ice offshore in the northern Chukchi Sea as resting platforms in between dives. On the shallow bottom of the Chukchi, the walruses feed on clams, snails and worms during the summer and autumn. The first large haulout along the shoreline near Pt. Lay formed in 2007, coinciding with an unprecedented loss of sea ice across the Chukchi Sea. During 2008 and 2012, remnants of sea ice offshore in the Chukchi Sea were sufficient for walruses to rest on between foraging dives. Haulouts on land formed in northwestern Alaska near Icy Cape and Cape Lisburne in 2009 and near Pt. Lay in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

 Cynthia Christman photographing marine mammals from inside the ASAMM survey aircraft. Photo by Vicki Beaver.

USGS Wildlife Biologist Tony Fischbach elaborated on this multi-agency collaboration. "Aerial photographs taken by NOAA scientists on the ASAMM team provide a context for the USGS walrus tracking studies, and allow USGS to make mission critical logistics decisions on when to deploy our teams and when to conduct our work with walruses on shore. The ASAMM team efforts are invaluable, as we all seek to understand how walruses are adjusting their behavior and movements in response to the loss of summer sea ice."

USFWS Wildlife Biologist Joel Garlich-Miller said, "The coastal aerial surveys carried out by the ASAMM team provide valuable information about the timing and location of coastal haulout formation on the Chukchi Sea coast of Alaska. The USFWS and coastal communities use in-season reports of walrus haulouts to establish and adapt protection measures to minimize disturbances from aircraft overflights and ship traffic. The coastal surveys also provide valuable baseline information about important coastal habitats for walruses, which can be used to evaluate and mitigate potential impacts of proposed projects in the Chukchi Sea region."

By Lt. Fionna Matheson, NOAA Corps with Megan Ferguson, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Laboratory


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